PARAGUAY
FACTS
Medical workers: N/A (not active)
Cumulative: 270
Mission status: Inactive
AGREEMENTS
MOST RECENT AGREEMENT
October 21, 2003
DURATION: 15 YEARS
START: 2000
AGREEMENT SIGNER: Paraguay’s
Ministry of Health
PREVIOUS AGREEMENTS:
Cultural and educational exchange (1999)
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Geographic areas: Alto Paraná, Itapúa,
Villa Hayes, San Pedro, Central, Boquerón
and Asunción. Operation Miracle was
carried out in 15 of the country’s 17
departments.
Health areas: Neonatology, general
comprehensive medicine, epidemiology,
ophthalmology, psychiatry, and nursing
Contracts obtained: No
Agreement obtained: Yes
Laws available: No
Current figures:
• Active personnel: None
• Defections: 15 (estimated)
• Did not return to Cuba: 15 (est.)
• Prohibted from returning: 8 (est.)
Media available: Yes
Official data available: Yes
Violations documented: Yes
Cases before UN/ICC: Yes
Cases in courts: No
Most relevant violations: Confiscation of
passports, mandatory housing
assignments; not allowed to sleep outside
assigned residence without permission,
restrictions on movement within the
country, monitoring by supervisors and
colleagues.

SUMMARY

Cuba’s collaboration with Paraguay began in 1999 with a cultural and educational exchange agreement that brought about a hundred Cuban medical workers to the country. In 2000, the two countries signed several medical cooperation agreements; one of these was for scholarships for Paraguayan students to study at Cuba’s Latin American School of Medicine. Cuban medical professionals arrived in 2001, earning a monthly salary of around $100 from the Cuban government. The communities hosting the professionals had to provide housing and food—something they failed to do, leaving it to the local government— in addition to the costs associated with the two monthly calls to Cuba allowed for the professionals. In 2003, 11 Cuban epidemiologists arrived, joining nine other doctors to constitute the Fourth Cuban Medical Brigade, to conduct research of pesticides, leprosy, aids, and Dengue research. In 2015, the Cuba-Paraguay agreement providing jobs for Paraguayan doctors who graduated in Cuba was not renewed. Operation Miracle was active from 2007 to 2015, when the Paraguayan government rescinded the collaboration agreement. Due to Covid-19, Paraguay’s Senate proposed to the Executive that the country enter into an agreement with Cuba to bring its medical professionals in exchange for Paraguay’s agricultural products; this proposal was broadly rejected by medical associations in Paraguay.

DOCUMENTED CASES

Anonymous: 2Link to completed questionnaires
Not anonymous: None
Public (media): None Link to media coverage

Findings from cases: Violations stemming Resolution 168 (e.g., constant
monitoring, restrictions on social activities and movement within country,
and curfews), and confiscation of passports, among others.

NAMES OF CHIEFS OF MISSIONS

Dr. Guadalupe Linares, Chief of Cuban Medical Brigade, 2003-2005
Dr. Carlos Alberto Perea, Chief of Operation Miracle Brigade, 2015

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